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Abstract: CCD is the abbreviation of ChargeCoupledDevice, which is a kind of special semiconductor device. It has a lot of the same photosensitive elements. Each photosensitive element is called a pixel. CCD is an extremely important component in the camera. It plays the role of converting light into electrical signals, similar to human eyes, so its performance will directly affect the performance of the camera.
CCD is the abbreviation of ChargeCoupledDevice, which is a charge-coupled device in English. It is a special semiconductor device. There are many identical photosensitive elements on it, and each photosensitive element is called a pixel. CCD is an extremely important component in the camera. It plays the role of converting light into electrical signals, similar to human eyes, so its performance will directly affect the performance of the camera.
There are many indicators for measuring the quality of CCDs, such as the number of pixels, CCD size, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio. Among them, the number of pixels and the CCD size are important indicators. The number of pixels refers to the number of photosensitive elements on the CCD. The picture taken by the camera can be understood as consisting of many small points, each point is a pixel. Obviously, the larger the number of pixels, the sharper the picture. If the CCD does not have enough pixels, the sharpness of the picture will be greatly affected. Therefore, in theory, the larger the number of pixels of the CCD, the better. However, the increase in the number of CCD pixels will reduce the manufacturing cost and yield. Moreover, under the current television standard, after the number of pixels is increased to a certain number, the effect of increasing the sharpness of the shooting picture becomes less obvious. Therefore, generally The number of pixels around one million is enough for general use.
Single CCD camera means that there is only one CCD in the camera and it is used to perform the photoelectric conversion of the luminance signal and color signal. The chrominance signal is completed by some specific color mask device on the CCD and combined with the following circuit. Because a CCD completes the conversion of the luminance signal and chrominance signal at the same time, it is inevitable that the two will be both, which makes the captured image fail to meet the high professional level requirements in color reproduction. To solve this problem, 3CCD cameras appeared. 3CCD, as the name suggests, is a camera using 3 CCDs. We know that if light passes through a special prism, it will be divided into three colors: red, green, and blue. These three colors are the three primary colors used by our TV. Through these three primary colors, the brightness signal can be generated. All TV signals included. If a piece of CCD is used to receive each color and converted into an electrical signal, and then processed by the circuit to generate an image signal, a 3CCD system is formed.
Compared with single CCD, because 3CCD uses 3 CCDs to convert red, green and blue signals, the captured image is more natural in color restoration than single CCD, and the brightness and sharpness are better than single CCD. However, due to the use of three CCDs, the price of a 3CCD camera is much more expensive than a single CCD.
The CCD column of digital camera specifications often says "1 / 2.7 inch CCD" and so on. The "1 / 2.7 inch" here is the size of the CCD, which is actually the length of the diagonal of the CCD. "
Existing digital cameras generally use CCDs with sizes of 1 / 2.7 inches, 1 / 2.5 inches, and 1 / 1.8 inches. A CCD is a collection of light-receiving elements (pixels), and receives light transmitted through the lens and converts it into electrical signals. When the number of pixels is the same, the larger the CCD size is, the larger the unit pixel is. In this way, more light can be collected per unit pixel, so in theory, it can be said to be beneficial to improving the image quality.
However, the quality of digital cameras is not only determined by the CCD. The performance of the lens and the circuit that forms an image by the electrical signal output from the CCD can also affect the image quality of the camera. The so-called "large size CCD = high image quality" is incorrect. For example, although 1 / 2.7-inch is smaller than 1 / 1.8-inch, digital cameras equipped with 1 / 2.7-inch CCD have not been criticized for poor image quality.
Nowadays, compact digital cameras are becoming more and more compact and light. For design considerations, most of them use 1 / 2.7-inch small CCDs.
By the way, the "type" of 1 / 2.7 inch is sometimes written as "inch", but it is not the ordinary "1 inch = 25.4 mm" here. Due to the combination of the camera tube and display method used on the camera before the CCD debut, it is customary to use a relatively special size. 1 / 2.7 inches is 6.6mm, and 1 / 1.8 inches is about 9mm.
CMOS stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor--a raw material used in the manufacture of integrated circuit chips on a large scale. Sometimes people call CMOS and BIOS mixed. In fact, CMOS is a readable and writable RAM chip on the motherboard. It is used to save the hardware configuration of the BIOS and the user's setting of certain parameters. CMOS can be powered by the battery of the motherboard, and information will not be lost even if the system is powered down. CMOSRAM itself is just a piece of memory, with only data saving function. The setting of various parameters in the BIOS must be through a special program. The BIOS setup program is generally integrated into the chip by the manufacturer, and the BIOS setup program can be entered through a specific key when booting, to conveniently set the system. So BIOS settings are sometimes called CMOS.
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