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Answer: Destroy the burning conditions of the forest. Do not combine combustibles, oxygen and fire sources (three elements of forest burning). As long as you eliminate any of the three elements of burning, the forest fire will go out.
The fundamental way to extinguish forest fires is;
(1) Isolation of combustibles means that the combustibles that are on fire are separated from the combustibles that are not on fire (such as excavation of fire barriers) to control and extinguish forest fires;
(2) Isolate oxygen, reduce the oxygen required by forest burning materials, and make it suffocate and extinguish (such as fire protection by covering with soil)
(3) Cool down to reduce the temperature of burning combustibles to the point of ignition, and forest fires stop burning (such as water fire extinguishing method).
CCD is the abbreviation of ChargeCoupledDevice, which is a charge-coupled device in English. It is a special semiconductor device. There are many identical photosensitive elements on it, and each photosensitive element is called a pixel. CCD is an extremely important component in the camera. It plays the role of converting light into electrical signals, similar to human eyes, so its performance will directly affect the performance of the camera.
There are many indicators for measuring the quality of CCDs, such as the number of pixels, CCD size, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio. Among them, the number of pixels and the CCD size are important indicators. The number of pixels refers to the number of photosensitive elements on the CCD. The picture taken by the camera can be understood as consisting of many small points, each point is a pixel. Obviously, the larger the number of pixels, the sharper the picture. If the CCD does not have enough pixels, the sharpness of the picture will be greatly affected. Therefore, in theory, the larger the number of pixels of the CCD, the better. However, the increase in the number of CCD pixels will reduce the manufacturing cost and yield. Moreover, under the current television standard, after the number of pixels is increased to a certain number, the effect of increasing the sharpness of the shooting picture becomes less obvious. Therefore, generally The number of pixels around one million is enough for general use.
Single CCD camera means that there is only one CCD in the camera and it is used to perform the photoelectric conversion of the luminance signal and color signal. The chrominance signal is completed by some specific color mask device on the CCD and combined with the following circuit. Because a CCD completes the conversion of the luminance signal and chrominance signal at the same time, it is inevitable that the two will be both, which makes the captured image fail to meet the high professional level requirements in color reproduction. To solve this problem, 3CCD cameras appeared. 3CCD, as the name suggests, is a camera using 3 CCDs. We know that if light passes through a special prism, it will be divided into three colors: red, green, and blue. These three colors are the three primary colors used by our TV. Through these three primary colors, the brightness signal can be generated. All TV signals included. If a piece of CCD is used to receive each color and converted into an electrical signal, and then processed by the circuit to generate an image signal, a 3CCD system is formed.
Compared with single CCD, because 3CCD uses 3 CCDs to convert red, green and blue signals, the captured image is more natural in color restoration than single CCD, and the brightness and sharpness are better than single CCD. However, due to the use of three CCDs, the price of a 3CCD camera is much more expensive than a single CCD.
The CCD column of digital camera specifications often says "1 / 2.7 inch CCD" and so on. The "1 / 2.7 inch" here is the size of the CCD, which is actually the length of the diagonal of the CCD. "
Existing digital cameras generally use CCDs with sizes of 1 / 2.7 inches, 1 / 2.5 inches, and 1 / 1.8 inches. A CCD is a collection of light-receiving elements (pixels), and receives light transmitted through the lens and converts it into electrical signals. When the number of pixels is the same, the larger the CCD size is, the larger the unit pixel is. In this way, more light can be collected per unit pixel, so in theory, it can be said to be beneficial to improving the image quality.
However, the quality of digital cameras is not only determined by the CCD. The performance of the lens and the circuit that forms an image by the electrical signal output from the CCD can also affect the image quality of the camera. The so-called "large size CCD = high image quality" is incorrect. For example, although 1 / 2.7-inch is smaller than 1 / 1.8-inch, digital cameras equipped with 1 / 2.7-inch CCD have not been criticized for poor image quality.
Nowadays, compact digital cameras are becoming more and more compact and light. For design considerations, most of them use 1 / 2.7-inch small CCDs.
By the way, the "type" of 1 / 2.7 inch is sometimes written as "inch", but it is not the ordinary "1 inch = 25.4 mm" here. Due to the combination of the camera tube and display method used on the camera before the CCD debut, it is customary to use a relatively special size. 1 / 2.7 inches is 6.6mm, and 1 / 1.8 inches is about 9mm.
CMOS stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor--a raw material used in the manufacture of integrated circuit chips on a large scale. Sometimes people call CMOS and BIOS mixed. In fact, CMOS is a readable and writable RAM chip on the motherboard. It is used to save the hardware configuration of the BIOS and the user's setting of certain parameters. CMOS can be powered by the battery of the motherboard, and information will not be lost even if the system is powered down. CMOSRAM itself is just a piece of memory, with only data saving function. The setting of various parameters in the BIOS must be through a special program. The BIOS setup program is generally integrated into the chip by the manufacturer, and the BIOS setup program can be entered through a specific key when booting, to conveniently set the system. So BIOS settings are sometimes called CMOS.
There are two main types of transmission signals in CCTV monitoring systems: one is analog video signals, the transmission path is from the camera to the matrix, from the matrix to the display or video recorder; the other is the digital signal including the control information between the matrix and the camera Transmission, the digital signal of the computer part of the matrix. Generally, the possibility of equipment becoming a source of interference is small, so interference mainly enters the system through the signal transmission path.
The signal transmission path of the closed-circuit television monitoring system is that the interference that can be coupled into the system through the video cable and the twisted pair of control signals are: various high-frequency noises such as large inductive loads starting and stopping, and power frequency interference caused by unequal ground potentials. The imbalance of the transmission line reduces the noise suppression ability and changes the common frequency interference into differential mode interference. The impedance mismatch on the transmission line causes the reflection of the signal to reduce the signal transmission quality, and the electrostatic discharge enters the device along the transmission line to cause damage or damage to the interface chip. The specific performance is as follows:
The effects due to impedance mismatch appear as ghosting on the video image. Oscillations form on the front and back of the pulse sequence on the signal transmission line. The existence of the oscillation makes the threshold difference between high and low levels small. When the amplitude of the oscillation is large or other interference is introduced, the pulse level value cannot be correctly distinguished, resulting in longer communication time or communication interruption. Poor grounding and shielding will cause the transmission line to reduce the ability to suppress external electromagnetic interference, which is reflected in video images such as snowflake noise, moire interference, and horizontal scrolling; peak interference is formed on the signal transmission line, causing communication errors. Unbalanced transmission lines can also cause spike interference on signal transmission lines. In addition to the damage caused by the electrostatic discharge, it will also affect the data in the memory and cause some inexplicable errors.
From the analysis of interference sources, I know that there are no special interference sources. There are many theoretical discussions on eliminating or reducing the above interference. There is little literature on how to solve the interference problem for CCTV monitoring projects. The following are common in CCTV monitoring work. Discuss the interference and solutions.
1. Anti-interference measures in digital signal transmission
Digital signal transmission in weak current system engineering usually refers to long-line transmission. Common methods include: transmitting digital signals on power lines or video lines through modulation and demodulation methods; and transmitting through industry-standard communication networks, such as RS422, RS845, and RS485. ; Self-developed automatic transmission. Compared with the three, RS422 and RS485 are common, so we focus on the anti-interference methods of RS485 digital communication.
RS485 bus is a differential balanced electrical interface, which has a strong ability to resist electromagnetic interference. However, RS485 bus has not achieved the desired effect in actual engineering. The problems often appear in the following areas: The first network topology is unreasonable, and it is not wired in accordance with the bus network topology, becoming a star topology in the matter; the transmission line and the receiving and transmitting end equipment are not connected properly, which weakens the anti-interference of the balance line Capacity; the third public twisted pair, no further anti-interference measures have been taken, such as shielded twisted pair. Although there are differences in the methods of causing interference, there are only two forms of interference: one is that reflection increases the degree of signal distortion; and the other is that external interference is destroyed due to equilibrium conditions, and common-mode interference becomes a string. Mode signal enters the transmission line.
2. Interference of video signals
The interference of the video signal appears on the image as ground flower dots and 50Hz horizontal stripes scrolling. For snowflake dot interference, it is caused by signal attenuation on the transmission line and coupled with high-frequency interference. This interference is relatively easy to eliminate. Add a video amplifier at a reasonable location to increase the signal to noise ratio or change the path of the video cable to avoid high-frequency interference sources. The problem of high-frequency interference can be basically solved. More difficult to solve is the case of 50Hz horizontal stripes rolling and further adding high frequency interference, such as the output image of the camera in the elevator car. In order to suppress the above interference, first analyze the cause of the above problem.
There are generally three types of power supply required by the camera: DC 12V, AC 24V or 220V. In most engineering applications, it is not taken from the power supply of the elevator car. Instead, a power supply is provided to power the camera. The output image of the camera passes a soft The video cable is sent from above or below the hoistway. The video cable and power supply cable are bundled with the power line of the car. When the elevator runs, the electromagnetic field generated by the traction motor runs along the lighting power line, which obviously affects the camera power cable and video. Cable, when the shielding layer of the video cable is not tight enough, high frequency interference is transmitted back to the monitor via the video cable. For the 50Hz horizontal stripe rolling, according to electromagnetic theory, it is known that the shielding layer of the video cable can completely eliminate the 50Hz power frequency interference. It can be inferred that this part of the interference is not coupled through the video cable, but from the power line and the unreasonable video line connection.
3. Power supply of monitoring system
There are only two power supply modes for the monitoring system: one is centralized power supply, that is, the power is sourced from one place, and the other is distributed power supply. The camera takes power near the installation location. From the perspective of anti-interference effect, centralized power supply Better, can basically eliminate the situation where the reference potential varies. There are two main types of transmission signals in CCTV monitoring systems: one is analog video signals, the transmission path is from the camera to the matrix, from the matrix to the display or video recorder; the other is the digital signal including the control information between the matrix and the camera Transmission, the digital signal of the computer part of the matrix. Generally, the possibility of equipment becoming a source of interference is small, so interference mainly enters the system through the signal transmission path.
Warning: alert users to potential danger of death or serious injury
1. Please read the manual carefully before installing this equipment.
2. Observe all warnings on the equipment and instructions.
3. Disconnect the power supply before wiping. Do not wipe with a damp cloth.
4. Please use the accessories recommended by the dealer or our company, otherwise it will cause malfunction.
5. This equipment should use the type and voltage recommended on the rating card. If the power source and voltage at the installation site are unclear, please contact the dealer or our company.
6. Protect the power cord, especially the plug and the flexible cord of the camera.
7. To prevent lightning strikes, install lightning arresters.
8. In order not to cause fire or electric shock, please do not overload the installation line of the device. Prevent foreign objects from entering the machine and do not allow corrosive liquid to splash on the machine to prevent danger.
9. Please do not install on the unstable support or wall, otherwise it will cause damage to the man-machine.
10. Because opening or disassembling the cover may cause high voltage electric shock or other dangers, do not attempt to repair it by yourself, please contact our company for all repairs.
11. When the laser illuminator lights up at night, the installation and commissioning personnel should pay attention not to look directly at the laser spot (within 20 meters).
12. When replacing parts, please use the parts approved by our company or the same performance as the components. Unauthorized substitutes may cause danger.
13. Please contact our company in the following cases:
a. Power supply and control line are damaged.
b. Use the wrong power supply type or voltage.
c. If it is dropped or the cabinet is damaged.
d. The device has abnormal performance.
e. If it still does not work normally after operating according to the instructions.
It adopts laser and infrared lighting system, large zoom lens with long focal length zoom lens, low-light surveillance camera or low-light infrared camera (ICCD), video server, equipment control software, etc., which are assembled by scientific and advanced methods.
The main features are:
1. All-weather: Adopt dual-detector lens, which can be connected with two cameras of color and black and white at the same time, and cooperate with GLOPRO laser lighting system to realize real-time monitoring of color and black and white in the day and night.
2. No blind zone: The laser illumination optical system is electrically adjustable, which can adjust the laser beam irradiation angle and the intensity of the laser spot in real time, achieving night-time monitoring without blind zones in the entire process. Monitoring distance optional
300m laser night vision-500m laser night vision; 500m laser night vision-1000m laser night vision; 1000m laser night vision-2000 laser night vision; 2000m laser night vision-3000m Laser night vision.
3, long monitoring distance: according to the user's needs, the product is configured with different models and corresponding systems to achieve full-time night monitoring from 50 meters to 2000 meters.
4. Low illumination: This system can be used in a dark environment without any auxiliary lighting.
5. Low power consumption, high reliability and easy installation.
6, good stability: the use of coaxial fine-tuning system, during the entire zoom process, the picture does not drift or jump.
7. Wide application range: This system is widely used in: border defense night vision monitoring, coastal defense night vision monitoring, maritime long-distance monitoring, flood prevention long-range monitoring, forest fire lookout monitoring, urban environment detection remote monitoring, oil field night monitoring, seawall Long-distance surveillance, public security night surveillance, railway train locomotive all-weather surveillance and other places requiring long-distance night vision surveillance.
Recently, I believe that many people have experienced a severe cooling and strong chill. This is because a strong cold air is sweeping from north to south, and the country is entering the shroud of "power" cold wave. This year's "interannual cold wave" not only lasts for a long time, but also has a great impact on cooling. Most regions of China will enter snow and ice days.
│Cold days protect the domestic power grid
During the duration of the cold wave, the severe cooling brought by the strong cold air will force the heating systems in various places to increase operations, which is a huge challenge for the power company's power grid load. Under such circumstances, in order to ensure the normal operation of the power system during the cold wave and to meet the needs for electric heating in cold weather, robots have begun to be favored by more and more power companies and gradually become a magic weapon for power inspection.
Recently, an electric power company has launched an intelligent inspection robot , and through the cooperation with the operation and maintenance personnel of the converter station, it has undertaken the inspection of the power grid equipment together. Under the “pull-out” hidden danger investigation, the robot has completed special inspections such as cold protection, freezing protection, fire protection, wind protection, small animal protection, and anti-dancing, which effectively strengthened the tracking and monitoring of heavy-load lines and high-load equipment. Realized the timely guarantee of grid safety and operation and maintenance.
│Robot power inspection becomes a trend
In fact, robot-assisted power inspection is not just an emergency means in cold weather. In daily power inspection tasks, the application of robots has become more and more frequent. The landing of intelligent robots in the field of power inspection is now becoming the general trend.
In the past, China ’s power inspections were mainly manual, which was not only easily restricted by factors such as terrain, environment, climate, and working range, but also faced many problems such as high labor intensity, difficult working conditions, and high security threats. Timely feedback and processing of power operation.
Compared with traditional manual labor, electric power inspection robots not only have the characteristics of flexible mobility, high safety, low cost, easy operation, etc., but also can replace manual inspectors to complete various types of information collection work, reduce staff labor intensity, and improve power The efficiency and safety of inspection work ensure that the hidden dangers of electricity are eliminated in time. Therefore, robots deserve to be the mainstream choice for power inspection!
│We are more professional in intelligent inspection solutions
Open software system, according to your needs, we will conduct research and development to provide one-stop system solutions for application scenarios. At present, the company can develop application scenarios: plant areas, ports, urban underground comprehensive pipeline corridors, transmission and transformation substations, oilfields and mines, aerial pipelines, bridges and tunnels, underground transportation systems, flammable and explosive goods warehouses, regional security, etc.
│Explosion-proof inspection robot
Explosion-proof inspection robot is mainly composed of robot body, wireless base station, navigation sign, autonomous charging device and remote control station. Widely used in Class II explosive environment, it can replace the inspectors to perform equipment and environmental inspections. It can reduce the labor intensity of inspectors, reduce the potential safety hazards during inspections, and improve the quality of inspections while maximizing petrochemicals. Safety management and intelligence in enterprises and mining industry.
│Security patrol robot
Security patrol robot with security patrol management system, can use autonomous patrol (autonomous obstacle avoidance, charging, autonomous navigation) security defense (sound and light alarm, remote shout, anti-riot shock), security prevention (intelligent dynamic monitoring, environmental monitoring, infrared detection) Four core functions of interactive services (media, entry broadcast). Can be widely used in communities, industrial parks, prisons and other large places.
Electric power inspection robot is a kind of detection equipment for substations and transmission circuits. Electric power inspection robot is a relatively dangerous job. Especially under high voltage, workers cannot work, and the inspection robot will not be affected by these. The influence of factors can still be accurately inspected.
Traditionally, the detection of transmission lines is mainly performed manually, which is not only inefficient but also dangerous. Especially in harsh environments, manual overhaul and maintenance of high-voltage transmission lines require a large amount of human, material and financial resources, and the lines are increasingly complex. Manual inspections are difficult and dangerous. The application of cruise robot has effectively made up for the shortcomings of manual cruise. Since its application, it has been widely concerned by industry experts and scholars. In a complex high-voltage circuit environment, inspection robots need to be able to walk online and cross obstacles to effectively complete inspection tasks. Therefore, the mechanical structure of the robot directly affects the actual performance of the robot, and is also one of the important technologies for the application and development of patrol robots.
The power inspection robot is the core part of the whole system, including mechanical part, detection part, drive part, communication part, power supply part, etc. The ground base station is mainly composed of a PC and is connected to the detection robot via Bluetooth. The real-time receiver receives the inspection images and data of the robot and sends control instructions. This paper mainly designs the main body control part of the inspection robot. Mechanical part: The inspection robot uses the ground line of the transmission line as the working path, and moves on the line to perform inspection tasks. It is required that the robot can move at a stable speed on the line. The wheel rolling method can ensure the stability of walking and a certain speed. Therefore, a two-wheel rolling mechanism is used.
The system layer of the mobile station consists of six parts: power system, navigation system, detection system, control system, communication system and motion system. It is mainly responsible for the collection and processing of navigation and positioning information. It automatically completes the cruise task according to the preset cruise route, and automatically positions and collects visible light at preset points. Images and infrared images are uploaded to the base station to complete the patrol task and automatically recharge, automatically stop in the process of quickly encountering obstacles, and alarm. The main components are: robot body and charging box.
The infrared temperature measurement system of the power inspection robot system can provide accurate temperature measurement data for operation and maintenance personnel, but there are still shortcomings. When the robot reaches the monitoring point, the platform will have a fixed angle on the device. Within the detection range of the infrared thermometer, other objects may interfere with the temperature measurement results. Such problems mainly involve the setting of marked points in the station. When setting the test tags, the constructor did not consider the possible influence of the steering angle of the robot platform and outdoor lighting behind the monitored equipment on subsequent monitoring. Such problems should be analyzed by the factory personnel during the construction of the platform, which may cause monitoring errors. The position of the punctuation point and the corner of the platform should be considered to eliminate unnecessary errors in equipment installation.
Electric power inspection robots are more flexible, and the patrol content is more comprehensive, increasing the application range of dual robots. It can effectively improve the comprehensiveness of inspections, reduce the number and time of operation and maintenance personnel, and release personnel to the inspection equipment area, effectively improving the safety of personnel.
1. The reasons for no image output are:
A. Check whether the power supply is properly connected and whether the power supply voltage is sufficient.
B. Whether the BNC connector or video cable is in poor contact.
C. Whether the lens aperture is open.
D. Whether the video or DC-driven automatic aperture lens control line is connected.
2. The causes of poor image quality are:
A. Whether the lens has fingerprints or is too dirty.
B. Is the aperture adjusted properly?
C. Poor contact of the video cable.
D. Is there any problem with the electronic shutter or white balance settings.
E. Whether the transmission distance is too far.
F. Whether the voltage is normal.
G. Is there a source of interference nearby.
H. When installing in an elevator, ensure insulation with the elevator to avoid interference.
Whether the I.CS interface is connected
3. What is backlight compensation?
Backlight compensation can provide ideal exposure for targets in front of very strong background light, whether the main target is moved to the middle, up, down, left or right or any position on the screen. An ordinary camera without super dynamic features only has a shutter speed of 1/60 second and an aperture of F2.0. However, a very bright background behind a main target or a point light source is inevitable. The camera will obtain The average of all recent rays and determining the level of exposure is not a good method, because when the shutter speed increases, the aperture is closed and the main target becomes too dark to be seen. To overcome this problem, a method called backlight compensation is widely used on most cameras by weighted area theory. The image is first divided into 7 or 6 areas (the two areas are duplicated), and each area can be independently weighted to calculate the exposure level. For example, the middle part can be added to 9 times the remaining blocks, so one is in the middle of the screen. The position of the target can be seen very clearly, because the exposure is mainly calculated with reference to the light level in the middle area. However, there is a very big flaw. If the main target moves from idle to the top, bottom, left, and right positions of the screen, the target will become very dark, because it is not distinguished now and it is not weighted.
4. What is spherical aberration, distortion and chromatic aberration:
Spherical aberration: a monochromatic conical beam emitted from an object point on the main axis to the optical system, refracted by the optical series, if the light rays with different aperture angles of the original beam cannot cross the same position on the main axis, or even At the ideal image plane, a diffuse spot (commonly known as a blurring circle) is formed, and the imaging error of this optical system is called spherical aberration.
Distortion: The straight line outside the main axis in the plane of the object becomes a curve after being imaged by the optical system. The imaging error of this optical system is called distortion.
Chromatic aberration: A white light is emitted from the white object point to the optical system. After being refracted by the optical series, the red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and purple colors of the white light cannot converge at the same point, that is The white object point cannot form a white image point, and the imaging error that forms a color image spot is called chromatic aberration.
5. Why does halo appear?
Blur caused by spherical aberration and coma is called halo. An oblique monochromatic conical beam emitted from an object point outside the main axis to the optical system after refracting through the optical series cannot form a clear image point, but only a diffuse spot. When the image plane is moved forward and backward to a certain position (sagittal image plane), the diffuse spot becomes a short line s perpendicular to the sagittal plane of the optical system. When the image plane is moved forward and backward to another position (the meridional image plane), the diffuse spot becomes a short line t perpendicular to the meridional plane of the optical system. An imaging plane with the smallest diffuse spot can be found between the meridional and sagittal image planes, and only an elliptical diffuse spot can be obtained at other positions. The imaging error of this optical system is called astigmatism. The magnitude of the astigmatism is represented by the distance between the meridional focal line t and the sagittal focal line s.
Fisheye lens: The viewing angle is close to or equal to 180%, and the focal length is extremely short.
Wide-angle lens: The angle of view is above 90 degrees, the observation range is large, and the near image is distorted.
Standard lens: a general term for lenses with a viewing angle of about 50 degrees, and its viewing angle is generally 45 ° to 50 °.
Telephoto lens: With a viewing angle of less than 20 degrees, the focal length can reach tens of millimeters or hundreds of millimeters.
Zoom lens: The focal length of the lens is continuously variable. The focal length can be changed from wide-angle to telephoto. The longer the focal length, the larger the image.
Pinhole lens: For concealed observation, it is often installed in places such as ceilings or walls.
Fixed focal length: The focal length is fixed and can be divided into two types: aperture and non-aperture.
With aperture: the size of the lens aperture can be adjusted. According to the change of ambient light, the size of the aperture should be adjusted accordingly. The size of the aperture can be adjusted manually or automatically. Manually adjusting the aperture is called manual aperture; the lens with a micro motor to automatically adjust the aperture is called automatic aperture.
No aperture: fixed aperture, the light flux is fixed. It is mainly used when the light source is constant or the camera has an electronic shutter.
Zoom: The focal length can be adjusted as needed to make the image of the subject larger or smaller.
The commonly used zoom lenses are six times and ten times zoom.
Three variable lenses: adjustable focus, adjustable focus, adjustable iris.
Two variable lenses: adjustable focus, adjustable focus, automatic aperture
What is the DC driverno Amp of the lens:
It uses the DC voltage on the camera to directly control the aperture. This lens contains only a galvanometer-type aperture motor, and there is no amplifier circuit in the camera. The two driving methods are not interchangeable, but general-purpose auto-iris lenses are now available.
What is the video driver of the lens? (Video driver)
It sends a video signal and power from the camera to the lens to control the aperture on the lens. This video input type lens contains an amplifier circuit to convert the video signal from the camera to control the aperture motor
Answer: The full name of CMOS is Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. Chinese translation is complementary metal oxide semiconductor. The manufacturing technology of CMOS is no different from that of general computer chips. It is mainly a semiconductor made of two elements, silicon and germanium, which coexist with N (charge-charge) and P (charge + charge) grades on CMOS Semiconductor, the current generated by these two complementary effects can be recorded and interpreted by the processing chip as an image